One of the major events that contributed to the founding of Rome is through a mythological account. In 753, Rome was named after its founder – Romulus, a historical figure that killed his half-god twin Remus . During the time of Romulus, the place has little interruptions. Another major event to the founding of Rome is the creation of the 12-month calendar by King Pompilius, emergence of the republics and empires, embracement of Christianity (specifically, Roman Catholicism), Roman alphabet and numerals, existence of huge variety of talented/gifted individuals, and so on. Moreover, other major events were associated with the Roman government. There was the establishment of the Forum, a plaza where various public, political and commercial activities (e.g., elections, triumphal processions, trials, speeches, etc.) were held. Likewise, the Roman government established various government offices and buildings (such as the Assembly, Senate, records offices, etc). Related to government during those periods included the constructions of Roman temples. Conquerors, kings, emperors, popes, etc. heightened the republics, kingdoms, empires, Catholicism, and so on. Although there were initially the persecutions of the Christians, Rome later adopted Christianity as its official religion. The government of Rome also granted citizenship to all its inhabitants. Other events are too many to list here.
HUM1500 W4 Discussion Question: What was the role of the Byzantine Empire in preserving Western culture during the Dark Ages? & What factors contributed to the main conflict between Charlemagne and the Byzantine Emperors? What resulted from these conflicts?
Byzantine Empire’s role, as one of the greatest empire of all time, in preserving Western culture during the Dark Ages was directly related to its continued existence for thousand of years. As an Eastern Roman Empire that did not fall during the Dark Ages, the Byzantine Empire maintained its rich and culturally advanced state, civilization and government. The Byzantine Empire thus actively protected all of Europe. It also preserved the Greco-Roman classical knowledge, literature, culture, tradition, philosophy, architecture, history, medicine, etc., especially during the Dark Ages . Because of the preservation of knowledge, it indirectly helped found the Renaissance Period. Subsequently, it also indirectly influenced the Enlightenment Age, Industrial Revolution, and so on. On the other hand, the contributory factors to the main conflict between Charlemagne and the Byzantine Emperors were the rebuilding of the boundaries of Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantine, and Pope’s use of Charlemagne in reuniting Eastern and Western Catholics. Hence, after Charlemagne’s coronation by the Pope of Western Rome, Charlemagne thus had separate claims (that is, as Emperor of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor) against two opposing empires between East and Western Roman Papal Empires, respectively. The results of these conflicts were that the rebuilding never occurred and the permanent schism between Eastern Roman Orthodox churches and the Roman Catholics remained.
HUM1500 W5 Discussion Question: What types of technologies were fostered in the age of agriculture? & How were these technologies different from previously used technologies?
In the age of agriculture, the types of technologies fostered were simple animal-drawn ploughs (plows) and vehicles, clay pots for food preservation, distillation / fermentation barrels for highly perishable agricultural products, wheelbarrows, and other implements. Some of these technologies were different from previously used technologies because they made agricultural activities less burdensome, more convenient, etc. However, as the agricultural age progressed, more ingenious agricultural equipment were created. The first steam engine, for instance, was invented as early as 50 A.D. by Heron of Alexandria . Later on, gunpowder was discovered and used to protect farm animals from wild animals. More and more related agricultural technologies were later made. Examples of these are: magnetic compasses, windmills, steam turbine, general-purposed matches, spinning wheels, telescopes, and so on. One or more technologies differed in their significance and relevance depending on the need of society, specific time of the year, or historical period. Even during the dawn of agricultural age, people were continually search for increased productivity, efficiency, etc. As technologies became more advanced, agricultural products also became much more available to a larger number of populations.
HUM1500 W6 Discussion Question: What were the major religious, social, and political reforms that contributed to the rise of papal supremacy? & How did these reforms change the position of the Church?
The major religious, social, and political reforms that contributed to the rise of papal supremacy were many. Based on the Roman Catholic Church, each pope was held highly because he is considered as Christ’s Vicar and general pastor of Catholicism. Thus, the pope has supreme, full, and infallible authority over its members. It is also believed that the papacy has a power too great to hinder. Socially, peoples across the world who acknowledge the papacy are under his subjection. They have to give money to their works of propagating the Catholic belief system. Part of Catholic history is the Crusades and Inquisition. People from many nations who did not subject themselves to the power of the pope were persecuted, hanged, etc. . Politically, the reforms done by the Catholic popes, missionaries, clergies, etc. were astoundingly varied. At the foreground, emperors, monarchs, and many other world leaders admit that the pope (where Peter is the first among them) is the regarded as the foremost bishop of Christ. Hence, since circa 6th century up to the present time, most of the reforms that the Catholic Church implemented were seemingly changeless. It is claimed that Peter was the first pope who has the “keys of the kingdom of heaven.” When Peter died, the papal succession was believed to be handed down to each incumbent pope. Whatever the pope’s command to the entire Church is infallible. In its early centuries of reforms, the Catholic Church performed every means to continue its domination among many Catholic rulers worldwide.
Inniss, S. (2007, April 07). Agricultural Age. Retrieved from Encyclopaedia Galactica: http://www.orionsarm.com/eg-topic/45b2ae037c7b4
Matthews, R., & Platt, D. (2007). The Western Humanities (Vol. 1). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Slayman, A. (2007). Were Romulus and Remus Historical Figures? (cover story). Archaeology, 60(4), 22-24.
The Guardian. (2000, March 13). Pope says sorry for sins of church. Retrieved from World News: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2000/mar/13/catholicism.religion