Good Defining Innovation In An Ngo With New Strategy Thesis Proposal Example

Published: 2021-06-21 23:51:58
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This research aims to develop a definition of innovation in an NGO with a new strategy that has no abstract understanding and or interpretation on the concept of innovation. Due to the fast growth rate of the NGO the Chief Executive and Chief Financial Officer both require that innovation should be incorporated in the operations of the NGO especially as it expands into other regions nationally and internationally. Both the CEO and the CFO have ideas about innovation that are quite differentiated in their approaches to innovative ideas. Nonetheless, both the CFO and the CEO agree that the NGO’s expansion requires that it opens up offices in different countries that require implementation of an international strategy on a national level. To achieve this effectively, the management notes that the NGO requires employee skills to match the strategy and technical requirements of the expanding NGO.
The NGO was focused majorly on animal welfare in Europe having been established back in 1988. The current expansion of the NGO requires reorganization of resources in terms of mission and strategy. In this move, the management intends to devolve certain operational responsibilities from the headquarters to county leaders in a move to empower local leaders. The problem, however, lies in the lack of innovation at the local levels as well as at the headquarters of the NGO. Due to the lack of innovation the NGO has lost several employees at the national level and requires replacements by employees with particular skill sets. Such skill sets will prove quite effective during devolution of certain headquarters (HQ) management functions. Animal protectors lack in skills that are essentially crucial in the management of aspects of the NGO moreover, individual employees’ exhibit various skills that are innovative especially new employees. However, the existing employees in the NGO present very little innovative ideas in the implementation of the strategy proposed especially in devolution. This research seeks to investigate the various options that are available for the NGO in defining innovation and developing a new strategy for the management of the NGO. Following these developments the research objectives are as follows;
Literature Review
Several scholarly writings have been advanced to explain the relationship between innovation and strategy, an analysis of a few of them presents an overview of the expected outcome or hypothesis that can be drawn from the conduction of the actual research. This section reviews a number of scholarly journals that contribute to the topic under study. Foremost, according to Bryson (1995, p. 32),
“A Strategy is defined as a pattern of purposes, policies, programs, actions, decisions, or resource allocations that define what an organization is, what it does and why it does it.”
He continues to add that a strategy can vary by level of function and time frame, in this regard the investigation of the strategy adopted by NGO group for CRC is deemed to vary in function. Other scholars such as Azar& Brock (2008) agree with this notion and add that strategy in the management of a business enterprise is both a means of advancing efficient and effective leadership (781). The importance of strategy in the management cannot be overestimated; in fact scholarly works suggest that the strategy is crucial in providing an approach to not only effective and efficient management, but also utilization of resources in a manner that ensures profitability and reduction of wastage. In the same respect strategy is a key element of analyzing and assessing organization performance which is crucial in the development of staff as well as in the adoption of change in the organization (Hill, et al., 2012, p. 187).
Similar sentiments have been advanced on the topic of innovation. Based on the analysis of literary works on innovation it is immediately clear that the innovation in the light of developments in the 21st century is crucial for any organization to maintain its competitiveness and profitability given the global dynamics whether political, social or economic. Hence, a huge proportion of the literature advanced on innovation suggests that the innovation requires flexibility where the latter can exist without the former but innovation cannot be achieved without flexibility (Bolwijn & Kumpe, 1990, p. 45).
Leadership flexibility, therefore, becomes crucial in encouraging an environment of innovativeness in the management of the organization at all levels from subordinate to managerial levels. Hence, another salient concern of innovation is effective leadership, studies advanced by Kearney (2008, p. 4) point out three central characteristics of an innovative leader. First, the leader must dedicate and commit time to the development of an innovative strategy, secondly, the leader must be engaged at all stages in the strategy development process. Finally, the leader must also show commitment is the management of open innovation networks that encourage contributions from various quarters in the organization.
Innovation management is in recent times gaining popularity among business managers as it allows them to enhance understanding between management and employees in effectively achieving the goals and objectives of the organization. Fundamentally, the focus of innovation in management is to allow the organization to react to internal or external opportunities by employing creative efforts in introducing new ideas in taking advantage of the opportunities in grasp (Kelly & Kranzburg, 1978, p. 88).
Other scholars point out that effective strategy design and implementation depends purely in the management’s commitment to the mode of governance where certain protocols are observed and various levels of autonomy are also allowed in the management hierarchy (Joint, 2006, pp. 232-3). Hoggett (1991, p. 243) advances that the trend in recent times is such that managers are moving away from centralization to decentralized systems of governance. However, these decentralizations also contain aspects of centralization of power such that contemporary management structures encourage more of horizontal forms of hierarchy than vertical forms of management. Mesner&Stebe (2005, p. 311) concur that devolution is the new move in management approaches where power is decentralized to individual branch managers who autonomously make crucial decisions about the operations of their units although they are accountable to the general management for all actions they undertake.
The management of NGO group for CRC coordinates operations of several NGOs around the world, due to the nature of the differences in concerns of various NGOs that comprise the group it is obvious from the onset that a decentralized management of the operations of the group id the most efficient means for dispensing the mandate of the NGO group for CRC. However, there are implications that present advantages and disadvantages of adopting either a decentralized or a devolved system of organizational management (Harris, et al., 2002, p. 218). Hence it becomes crucial that the management make an informed decision on the approach to adopt given the pros and cons of either centralization or decentralization.
Of particular notice are some literary works on the topic that have focused on the hypocrisy in management where decentralization is a hoax hidden in biased and undemocratic centralization. This lie uses decentralization moves as a public relations strategy especially in corrupt systems of governance in organizations and legislative boundaries such as countries (Mafora, 2013, p. 97). Notwithstanding the general idea that resurfaces among literature advanced on centralization vs. decentralization in management is that the decentralization develops autonomy that leads to efficiency in management compared to centralization approaches. Nonetheless, the literature does not rule out centralization as an effective means of management strategy as well since it has its unique advantages not present in decentralization such as strict supervision that enhances accountability in the organization (Casasnovas, et al., 2009, p. 103; Bardhan, 2002, p. 185).
Arguments regarding staff development in regard to the adoption of change and innovation has focused on the capacity of the staff to adopt change; in a study to investigate the influence that pressure from management has on teachers’ enhancement of development in innovative teaching skills found that absence of such pressure leads to little or no innovation at all (Smylie, 1988, p. 1). Other writings, however, disagree pointing out that innovative ideas are developed by employees and that management only looks for innovation from its workforce with the aim of planning implementation approaches (Spender & Strong, 2010). Most notable though are facts about innovation and employee reactions to change where concern is increasingly forming debate with each new dawn on employees’ resistance, avoidance, commitment and compliance to change and innovation in the organization (Klein & Sorra, 1996, p. 1055). Urhuogo& Williams (2011, p. 80) in support of these ideas advance that successful, innovative ideas require the appropriate leadership to enable the execution of an innovative idea and hence quite central in determining the successful implementation and adoption of change by employees.
This literature review has presented crucial elements that have to do with innovation, change, strategy and employee’s reactions to these issues given the management strategies adopted by the leadership. The literature provides a background analysis of evidence and facts that serve as the foundations of the research topic under investigation. Further, the analysis of the researcher serves to provide the study with possible hypotheses that can help in the interpretation of the results that would be yielded from the conduction of the study. What is more this review serves to guide the research from contributing information on studies that have already been conducted in the past as this would make the research redundant. Primarily, the review is a comprehensive analysis of the topic under study.
The study will make use of both primary and secondary data in the compilation of information that would be helpful in understanding the research questions and answering the objectives of the study. The research will adopt a survey approach in the collection of data; this is because surveys are proven to be efficient in the collection of data from a considerably large and widespread population. Further, surveys are also time efficient as they are proven to require considerably shorter periods to complete depending on the objectives of the research (Flicker & Schonlau, 2002; Kaplowitz, et al., 2004).
Primary data will comprise majorly of interviews between the researcher and NGO heads of different branches of the NGO implementing the international strategy on a national level. The results of the interviews will be analyzed qualitatively and interpreted as appropriate. The researcher’s main concerns in the interviews revolve around the role that the NGO leaders play in implementing an international strategy of the NGO on a national level in the countries or regions which they manage. Issues pertaining to the development of their units in regard to adoption to change and innovation will also feature prominently in the interview sessions. What is more, the interviewer will probe into the management’s approaches in addressing employee apprehensions particularly around adoption of change and innovation. In this regard, the main data collection instrument to be employed in the collection of primary data is an interview schedule that will be prepared by the researcher for purposes of data collection. Due to the limitations that may arise such as separation by distance and time between the researcher and the interviewee; the interviews may adopt any possible means of communication such as Skype, telephone calls, video conferencing etcetera in the collection of data from respondents. However, the option of the best communication medium to adopt is left to the discretion of the researcher as per the arrangements with the interviewee.
Secondary data, on the other hand, is detailed in the literature review which provides an understanding of several pertinent issues under investigation. Moreover, the literature review provides information and evidences on research that has been conducted in the area under study in the past. This information serves as guiding signposts for the researcher as the data collected is meant to answer several objectives aforementioned in the previous sections of this paper. More importantly, the review serves as a guideline for the study in adopting the best approaches in the achievement of the objectives of the study.
As earlier mentioned communication between the researcher and respondents would be limited to technological solutions since face to face communication options may prove impossible due to the fact that the researcher and the interviewees are separated by both time and space. Secondly, time factor also serves to constrict the scope of the study since more time allocation would delve into more detailed analysis of the issues on the topic.
Works Cited
Bardhan, P., 2002. Decentralization of Governance and Development. Journal of economic perspectives , 16(4), pp. 185 - 205.
Bolwijn , P. T. & Kumpe, T., 1990. Manufacturing in teh 1990s - Productivity, Flexibility and Innovation. Long Range Planning, 23(4), pp. 44 - 57.
Casasnovas, G. L., McDaid, D. & Costa-Font, J., 2009. Decentralizatin and Management Autonomy? Evidence from the Catalonian Hospital Sector in aa Decentralized Spain. International Public Management Review, 10(2), pp. 103 - 119.
Flicker, R. D. & Schonlau , M., 2002. Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet Research Surveys: Evidence from the Literature. Field Methods , 14(4), pp. 347 - 367.
Harris, L., Doughty , D. & kirk , S., 2002. The devolution of HR responsibilities - perspectives from the UK's public sector. Journal of European Industrial Trainning, 26(5), pp. 218 - 229.
Hill , A. D., Kern , D. A. & White , M. A., 2012. Building understanding in strategy research: The Importance of employing consistent terminology and convergent meadures. Strategic Organizations, 10(2), pp. 187 - 200.
Joint, N., 2006. Common Principles in Managing digital libraries and Managing VLEs. Library Review, 55(4), pp. 232 - 236.
Kaplowitz, M. D., Hadlock , T. D. & Levine , R., 2004. A Comparison of Web and Mail Survey Response Rates. Public opinion Quarterly, 68(1), pp. 94 - 101.
Kelly, P. & Kranzburg, M., 1978. Technological Innovation: A Critical Review of Current Knowledge. San Fransisco : San Fransisco Press.
Klein , K. J. & Sorra, J. S., 1996. The Challenge of Innovation Implementation. Academy of Management Review, 21(4), pp. 1055 - 1080.
Mafora, P., 2013. when Devolved Power is Re-centralized: The Adulteration of Deliberative Democracy in School Governing Bodies. Journal of Social Science, 34(2), pp. 97 - 104.
Smylie, M. A., 1988. The Enhancement Function of Staff Develpment: Organizational and Psychological Anteceedents to Individual Teacher Change. American Educational Research Journal, 25(1), pp. 1 - 30.
Spender , J. C. & Strong , B., 2010. Who Has Innovative Ideas? Employees.. The wall Street Journal, 23 August .

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