Good Article Review About History

Published: 2021-06-21 23:39:37
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Category: Crime, Texas

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Use this form and the paper of your choice (not yours) and email them to me . You will be graded on whether or not you know if the papers are cited correctly and if you can recognize the use of first or second person and contractions. Answers must be clear yes or no.
Grammar:
Use of First person: No
Use of Second person: No
Use of contractions: Yes
Complete sentences: Yes
Citations: Yes
All information is cited: Yes
All citations in the paper are on the works cited: Yes
Length (is the paper 3 full pages plus a works cited): Yes
What would improve this paper? Use of heading or subheadings. Do not plagiarize (that is, give credit to the source). Use correct citation format, grammar, and punctuation marks. Avoid using Wikipedia as a primary source. Avoid too lengthy paragraphs. Avoid verbosity. Use only reputable sources to avoid citing wrong information. Add more relevant details to the paper.
Article for Review
Houston Riot of 1917
Abstract
In August 1917, after suffering a string of racial attacks, black members of the Twenty-fourth Infantry’s Third Battalion rioted in Houston, killing 15white civilians and four police officers (Henretta, Edwards and Self 646). The army tried 118 of the soldiers in military courts for mutiny and riot, hanged 19, and sentenced 63 to life imprisonment (Henretta, Edwards and Self 646). Racial discrimination was believed to have played an essential role in this riot.
In the Spring of 1917, soon after U.S. announced its war against Germany, the U.S. War Department found it favorable to use the recently opened Houston Channel. It ordered the building of military installations in Harris, Texas and another one in Camp Logan, Ellington Field (Wikipedia).
On 27 July 1917, U.S.’s Third Battalion of the Twenty-fourth Infantry Regiment traveled via train to Houston from Columbus in New Mexico to defend the construction site there. According to Wikipedia, the said battalion was accompanied by several white officers on their trip to Houston. However, the gathering of blacks there were racially discriminated even when they had passes to enter the city (Texas State Historical Association). The blacks thought they would be treated with equality since some black army servicemen were also there. The blacks soon realized the truth of the matter.
Although the blacks abided by the rules, they still did not like the way the whites treated them. For instance, the blacks disliked standing in streetcars’ rears even when there were already vacant seats intended only for whites. This is because the black really resented being slurred racially by the white workers at Camp Logan (Texas State Historical Association). Some blacks kept their mouth close to keep peace whereas others resented.
One of the biggest precipitating causes of the riot began in 23 August 1917 when two officers entered the residence of an Afro-American woman with three kids without her permission. The officers claimed that they were searching for someone else, but then started to physically assault the lady and pulled her to the streets. The woman screamed and demanded an explanation for being apprehended, which made a crowd to gather (Wikipedia). A black 24th Infantry soldier inquired about the matter, but was instead beaten and arrested. A police report and subsequent news reported that the soldier interfered with the arrest of a publicly intoxicated woman the reason he was charged (Wikipedia). An argument took place when Charles Baltimore, a corporal, investigated the arrest and asked that the soldier be released, which only resulted to his beating until shot by some police officers.
The Houston Riot began on the 23rd of August 23. One hundred fifty six (156) furious soldiers ignored their officer’s orders and stole the arms from the bivouac and onto Houston City (Wikipedia). Given prior notice to what was about to occur, police officers and armed citizens awaited the soldiers’ arrival and were prepared to fight. Around 15 whites were killed and several from both sides were injured in the riot (Wikipedia). The following day everything was back in order the way it was suppose to be and the battalion was ordered to return to New Mexico.
After the riot occurred many events was to take place in the courts. Almost 200 eyewitnesses testified over 22 days. Transcripts of the testimony were more than 2,000 pages (Wikipedia). Departmental Judge and Colonel George Dunn reviewed the initial court martial’s record (“Nesbit Case”) and authorized the sentences (Wikipedia). By December 3, General Ruckman received the documents. After a few days, he informed 13 prisoners, which included Corporal Baltimore, that they would be hung for murder. By December 10, condemned soldiers included eight privates, a sergeant, and four corporals were returned to the barrack (Wikipedia). The soldiers were wakened at 5 a.m., and hanged before sunrise. General Ruckman took credit for the occurrences of these events by telling news reporters.
The second court martial (“Washington Case’’) started after another six days. Out of the 15 men tried were given death sentence (Wikipedia). Even though Ruckman approved the sentences publicly, execution by death sentence had to be reviewed by Judge Advocate General Office according to the new order that passed December 1917. On top of this order another was put in place weeks later for the U.S. President to review the records. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People petitioned to President Wilson that the five men be given extended clemency instead of having them hanged (Wikipedia).
Ruckman was determined to have justice served on behalf of the riot. He approved another (or third) court martial (“Tillman Case’’). This time he wanted to try 40 more soldiers on behalf of the riot. On 26 March, 23 soldiers were tried and found guilty, 11 were given death sentence, and the rest to life imprisonment. On 2 May, Ruckman had approved the sentences. On 31 August 1918, Wilson gave presidential clemency to 10 soldiers (Wikipedia). He also gave a statement about the Houston Riot of 1917, and expressed his deepest sympathy on behalf of the innocent bystanders on that day. He agreed that all decisions that were previously made acceptable according to certain laws. He wanted Afro-American soldiers’ “splendid loyalty’’ to be acknowledged through hope of a clemency to inspire them by offering their “further zeal and service” to our nation (Wikipedia). The last 11 soldiers were put to death on September 29, 1918.
The primary cause of the Houston Riot was the habitual brutality of the white police officers of Houston in their treatment of colored people (The Crisis Magazine of NAACP). The riot was one of the saddest chapter in the annals of American racial relations. It clearly depicted the problems our nation and its citizens had struggled with even during wartime (Texas State Historical Association).
Works Cited
Henretta, James, Rebecca Edwards and Robert Self. America: A Concise History, Combined Volume. 5th. Massachusetts: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012. Print.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. NAACP Voices from Paris TX. 23 August 2011. Web. 2 December 2013. .
Texas State Historical Association. The Handbook of Texas Online. 2013. Web. 1 December 2013. .
The Crisis Magazine of NAACP. Houston Riot of 1917. November 1917. Web. 1 December 2013.
Wikipedia. Houston Riot (1917). 15 November 2013. Web. 1 December 2013. .

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