This article provides a discussion on the issues and impacts of coastal tourism evaluating the current environmental related affairs and issues regarding the future of tourism. In the conclusion, the article provides suggestions for the management of coastal tourism in the future. The article begins with the recognition of the increased awareness for improving sustainable forms of tourism. The coastal regions provide transition points between the land and the sea featuring high biodiversity and the most volatile and fragile ecosystem on earth. For example, the coral reefs and mangroves present a very fragile environment. Rapid urbanization has also led to increased population pressure on the coastal areas and the majority of the tourist frequently visit these areas. The article that tourism is the predominant economic activity in the coastal areas.
The article recognizes the main economic factors at play in the coastal areas other than tourism include fisheries, shipping and other land use practices and climate changes. The resulting issues from the activities and issues at play in the coastal area include, loss of marine resources such as coral reef, pollution, sea level rise and loss of cultural resources. A high influx of tourists in a coastal area increases pollution and wastes impacting enormous pressure on local resources. However, irrespective of the numerous shortcomings associated with coastal tourism, there are numerous economic benefits such as foreign exchange earnings, contribution to government earnings, generation of employment and contribution to local economies among others. Therefore, this article provides an imperative source in understanding the impact of marine tourism, both positive and negative.
CHHEANG, V. (2010). Tourism and Local Community Development in Siem Reap. Journal of Heritage Tourism , 85-100.
After decades of war in Vietnam that destroyed local infrastructure in the 1970’s, there has been numerous international interventions and in the early 1990’s the country started growing. Consequently, tourism has been an important sector in the country’s economy contributing significantly to the GDP. The tourism sector has been significant in providing employment and income for the citizens. In response to the growing significance of the tourism sector, the government a ministry of tourism and tourism authority and various other departments from the early 1990’s. The sector has been highly recognized in government plans and it has been prioritized in the budget. The tourism sector is rated second in contribution to the country’s GDP after the textile industry. However, the country is not alone in rating the sector as it is among the major industries in the global.
However, although the sector is the second contributor to the country’s income there has been questions regarding the real impact of tourism to the local communities. Tourism has been an imperative sector particularly to the developing countries since there are no tariffs and barriers as compared to other trades. In addition, developing countries have high unemployment rates and since tourism sector is labor intensive it provides the highly needed employment opportunities. However, the article also recognizes the negative impacts of tourism especially on social, culture and environment. Therefore, this article presents how the local community perceives the benefits and costs of tourism and presents an argument that there is a need for changing the current structure of tourism to increase the benefit to the local community. Although this article does not primarily focus on marine tourism, it provides essential insights about the tourism sector in the country.
Kontogeorgopoulos, N. (2008). Tourism in Thailand: Patterns, Trends and Limitations. Pacific Tourism Review , 225-238.
In this article, Nick starts by recognizing the importance of international tourism in Thailand as an important source of foreign exchange, providing an important network connecting the country not only to the regional, but also global networks. The economic benefits from the tourism sector have enabled the country to mitigate the balance of trade. However, the sector faces myriad shortcomings ranging from poor planning of the sector’s growth, which have created social and environmental dilemmas. However, despite the financial and economic gains from the development of the sector there has been local resistance displaying the complexity and conflicts surrounding the continued expansion. Therefore, this article makes an attempt to examine the social and environmental dilemmas in light of historical growth patterns and contemporary trends in the tourism sector. The article also provides ideas on how the government and other players in the industry can balance the perpetual quest for maximizing profits, with other broader issues of ensuring quality and sustainability.
Therefore, although the article does not primarily focus on maritime tourism, it provides important insights on the impact of tourism in general perspective where maritime tourism is part of the larger sector. For example, there has been numerous issues affecting the sector due to uncontrolled mass tourism development such as overcrowding, which has led to increased waste and pollution. Maritime tourism has been among the major sub-sector of the industry, and the challenges facing the mainstream sector also affect the maritime sub-sector. For example, short-sighted planning has led to the degradation of formerly pristine coastal resorts, which have been destinations for many tourists in the country. Therefore, this article provides an important resource in understanding the impact of maritime tourism in Vietnam from the perspective of the government and the citizens.
Le, Y., Hollenhorst, S., Harris, C., McLaughlin, W., & Shook, S. (2006). ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT. Annals of Tourism Research , 545–567.
This article aimed at identifying the factors influencing the actions and intentions of Vietnamese hotels adoption of more environmentally friendly practices. The studies approach the issue from the hotel managers’ perspective within the framework of diffusing innovations and theory. Therefore, the article provides important insights on the potential advantages and barriers to the adoption of the identified sustainable tourism practices. This evaluation provides an analysis of the internal and external environmental features and organizational characteristics affecting the adoption of more sustainable practices. There are numerous beach hotels and resorts along the coastal Vietnamese areas playing an imperative role in the maritime tourism. The adoption of sustainable practices in the industry is of great importance based on the recent trends characterized by overcrowding and pollution (Le, et al, 2006).
Therefore, this article provides an important resource in studying the impact of maritime tourism tourism in Vietnam from the perspective of adopting sustainable practices to improve the outcomes. The tourism sector is among the major sectors in the country’s economy and hence it is expected to play a leading role in promoting the achievement of a balance between economic benefits and protection of the environment. Maritime tourism has also been in the limelight on issues concerning the adoption of sustainable practices based on pertinent issues resulting from the sub-sector. For example, there has been an increasing pressure on the resources in the coastal areas as a result of overcrowding resulting in the degradation of coastal resources such as mangroves and reefs (Le, et al, 2006). Therefore, this article provides an important resource in understanding the importance of adopting sustainable practices that can improve the outcome and impact of maritime tourism.
Lindsey, G., & Holmes, A. (2010). Tourist Support for Marine Protection in Nha Trang, Viet Nam. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management , 461-480.
Tourism has been proposed and identified as an important industry in financing environmental protection programs. Tourists surveys have been identified as an important source of information about the significance of environmental problems and the trade-offs policies that can be adopted. They evaluate the willingness to pay for environmental protection programs and preferences for other mechanisms of payment. For example, in Khanh Hoa province there has been various industry players such as the world conservation union and ministry of fisheries attempting to implement Vietnam first Maritime Protected Area (MPA).
This article reports the outcome of a survey of local people, and foreigners included in the implementation of MPA in the island. The majority of respondents embraced the MPA as it provided a solution to the increased rubbish on the beaches, increased pollution, as well solve the problem of the vendors on the beaches. However, foreign respondents were more receptive to the implementation of the MPA than the local Vietnamese. However, successful implementation of the MPA is based on education and income of the people and more foreigners are more willing to pay an extra small fee for the conservation of the environment. Therefore, this article focuses directly on maritime tourism addressing the importance of adopting sustainable practices to reduce environmental degradation.
Mai, T. V., & Bosch, O. (2010). SYSTEMS THINKING APPROACH AS A UNIQUE TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY IN THE CAT BA BIOSPHERE RESERVE OF VIETNAM. Queensland: University of Queensland.
This article approaches tourism industry as a dynamic and complex system comprising different interacting components and stakeholders. It recognizes the importance developing sustainable tourism, which has been subject to numerous impediments. This has created difficulties in the development and management of tourism in a sustainable way. This article provides a systematic approach in studying and understanding the tourism system in the Cat Ba Biosphere Reserve of Vietnam. The study provides important insights on the need to think the industry using the systematic approach. This will facilitate the provision of explanation of the complexities within the tourism system. The approach has been imperative in simplifying, clarifying and integrating isolated issues associated with the industry. It provides an environment of group learning and decision making, which results in better outcomes.
Therefore, this article can provide important insights as maritime tourism is a part and a component of the larger industry. Adopting the systematic approach will facilitate the simplification and clarification of the issues pertinent to maritime tourism. Therefore, the impact of maritime tourism can be well understood from the perspective of adopting a systematic approach.
Nasuchon, N. (2009). COASTAL MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIA, VIETNAM, CAMBODIA AND THAILAND, WITH A CASE STUDY OF THAI FISHERIES MANAGEMENT. NEW YORK: United Nations-Nippon Foundation Fellow.
This report provides a review of the approaches to coastal and community management in Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. The management of community and the coastal areas in these countries adopts different approaches. For example, Vietnam has adopted community management established from the needs of the community with the objective of protecting the coastal resources. The adoption of different strategies is based on the diversity of challenges facing each of the countries. Having adopted a market based economies; the resources on the coastal areas in these countries have highly been exploited in response to market demand. For example, the production of aquaculture products has exponentially increased over the years exploiting marine resources and eventual over exploitation. Therefore, this report provides important information pertinent to maritime tourism as overexploitation of these resources will affect maritime tourism.
The report recognizes the importance of introducing integrated coastal zone management, which will facilitate the development of effective approaches for sustainable use of maritime resources. The report recognizes that maritime tourism is among the major activities along the coastal regions and subject to the integrated coastal zone management. Maritime tourism has experienced exponential growth from the early 1990’s in Vietnam. However, it has been challenging as the industry players make numerous attempts of balancing the development without affecting the environment ensuring sustainable resource use. Therefore, this report provides important information on different activities taking place in the coastal areas and the importance of integrating these activities. This will promote the adoption of sustainable resource use along the coastal zone.