In this article, Ryan approaches the issues of inter-agency cooperation through a two threaded approach. One perspective evaluates the structure of the US government and the other perspective evaluating the methodological issues, which are relevant to inter-agency issues and inter-organizational network analysis. This study adopted the use of online data available in regard to inter-agency relations and inter-organizational analysis. There has been numerous studies in the recent past in regard to inter-organizational network studies based on the availability of data on the relations of organizations with each other. This article explores the inter-agency issues from the perspective of the government structure and methodological perspective of inter-agency cooperation.
This article substantially provides an illustration of frequently asked questions on inter-agency relationships particularly with the federal government. The article explains inter-agency asked questions such as whether the government has become more or less hierarchical. The article also provides an evaluation of how technology and economic imperatives have transformed how government agencies serve citizens. Through this the article focuses on how well the agencies have been able to relate to each other, which facilitates understanding of intergovernmental structure.
Carafano, James Jay. "Five Missteps in Interagency Reform—And What to Do About Them." Inter-Agency Journal (2013): 115-124.
In this article, Carafano recognizes the importance of inter-agency operations where different agents work together in addressing a complex and difficult challenge. He postulates that successful and effective inter-agency operations are essential factors in successful governance. For example, there has been numerous incidents in the US that have called for inter-agency cooperation such as the 9/11 terrorist attack, Gulf oil spill, Hurricane Katrina, combat of transnational terrorism, response to climate change and the Iraq and Afghanistan troubles. The response to each of the challenging incidents increases the urgency of improving inter-agency cooperation as there have been numerous instances where the government has failed due to inter-agency quarrels. This article explores five issues that have continued to impede inter-agency cooperation and provides ideas on how to solve such challenges.
Therefore, Carafano addresses five missteps that the government has done, leading to failure of inter-agency cooperation and some of the ideas that can solve the problem. For example, the need to understand and know the whole system has been difficult due to lack of an official history of government activities. Therefore, there is a need for the development of an inter-agency database, where all government agencies can access any data required for inter-agency operations. He also expresses the need for the development of a playbook such as organizational charts, missions and clear roles. The valuing of human capital has also been recognized as a weakness for effective inter-agency operations and lack of leaders who can lead inter-agency operations.
Kahn, Lynn Sandra. "Twenty-first Century Governance: Ten Strategies for Success." June 2013. 18 October 2013 <21st Century Governance_Ten strategies for success.pdf>.
In this essay, Kahn acknowledges that in the twenty first century, the basic building blocks of a good democracy are teams and inter-organizational networks and partnerships. This facilitates the leveraging of resources, knowledge and wisdom that leads to the delivery of better results. He recognizes that these networks, partnerships and teams form the basis of a model system of governance. He expresses the importance of having integrated missions, goals, vision, performance measures and strategies, where results are published annually through a strategic plan. Therefore, the article provides best practices and strategies of working across the traditional boundaries between agencies. This article identifies strategies that can be used to enhance inter-agency operations in the twenty-first century.
For example, it addresses the issue of inter-agency coordination, which is central in ensuring inter-agency cooperation. For example, lack of unity of command consequentially affects the unity of the efforts from different agencies. For example, unity has been recognized as the most prevalent barrier to realizing the reconstruction of Iraq. Bureaucracy in different government agencies creates divisions, which hamper the efforts of reconstruction. It also addresses the importance of developing a strategic plan suitable for inter-agency goals. The need for the development of a network of partners and ensuring effective communications between different agents is essential.
Oliver-Johnson, Lisa N. "What are the Challenges to Inter-agency Collaboration?" The Journal of International Security Cooperation (2013).
This article addresses the challenges that impede inter-agency collaborations in regard to security agencies in the US. For example, it recognizes the failure of communications as a major impediment for inter-agency cooperation during the cold war. For example, during the cold war, United States Intelligence and military organization failed to communicate after the cold war, which led to failures in the intelligent systems. In addition, there have been misconceptions and mis-perceptions between different agencies, which lead to information mismanagement affecting inter-agency cooperation. This article identifies the challenges facing inter-agency operations and provide insights on how to solve such challenges.
The challenges identified in this article as the main impediment to inter-agency cooperation includes, but not limited to a lack of goals, unclear and ineffective mechanisms, lack of accountability. There have been challenges of incompatible participants and misaligned planning processes, as well as lack of clear procedures and policies to effectively operate across different agencies. Therefore, this article articulately addresses the issues and challenges hindering inter-agency cooperations.
United States Government Accountability Office. Managing for Results-Key Considerations for Implementing Interagency Collaborative Mechanisms. Report to Congressional Requesters. Washington, D.C: United States Government Accountability Office, 2012.
There have been numerous mechanisms that have been adopted by federal agencies in the implementation of an inter-agency collaborative system. For example, the president appoints an inter-agency coordinator or establishes inter-agency task forces to address various issues that require inter-agency cooperation. This article by GAO addresses the issues and the results that the federal government seeks to achieve in ensuring coordinated efforts between different federal agencies. For example, it recognizes the importance of ensuring well trained and educated workforce as an essential factor in the achievement of coordinated efforts. The article also addresses the concern of the government and the congress in recognizing the need for improving collaborations across the federal government agencies.
This has led to the formulation and development of new laws to address the issue of collaborations between different federal agencies. For example, the Modernization Act of 2010 presents the new approach adopted by the congress in addressing collaboration between different federal agencies. The Act provides a new framework that provides a more crosscutting and more integrated approach to improving performance. Therefore, this article presents the mechanisms that GAO identified to be addressed by the federal government in addressing inter-agency issues. Therefore, this article provides an essential source in understanding inter-agency cooperation from the perspective of federal government roles.
Pendleton, John H. National Security - Key Challenges and Solutions to Strengthen Inter-agency Collaboration. Committee on Armssed Services, House of Representatives. Washington, D.C: GOA, 2010.
Inter-agency operations are essential especially in matters concerning security agencies and federal government concerns on the need of ensuring collaboration between security agencies. There is a need for federal agencies to enhance collaborations by addressing various issues that have long affected the response of the US government to future contingencies and changing conditions. For example, there have been numerous threats to homeland security and multi-agency approach to address these issues is critical. This report identifies critical issues that need to be addressed to improve the effectiveness of inter-agency collaborations.
Therefore, Pendleton presented various issues to GOA as essential in facilitating inter-agency collaborations especially in concern with security agencies. There have been significant achievements in improving collaborations between different security agencies. For example, the development of clear plans and priorities, as well as setting of measurable goals is essential. The following issues have been recognized in this article as essential in facilitating inter-agency collaborations. The development and implementation of overarching strategies and the creation of collaborative organizations is an imperative in promoting inter-agency collaborations. Additionally, there is a need for the development of trained workforce and communication sharing across different agencies. Therefore, this article provides pertinent issues that need to be addressed for the achievement of effective inter-agency-collaborations.
Thompson, Fred. Managing for Barriers to Inter-agency Coordination. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Washington, D.C.: GOA, 2000.
The report begins with the recognition of the importance of ensuring inter-agency collaborations, as all objectives of the federal government are embedded in coordinated efforts of different agencies. However, it also recognizes fragmentation and overlapping of federal agencies functions and roles and poor coordination of crosscutting programs. Poor coordination has led to loss of scarce funds frustrating the effectiveness of federal efforts. This report provides ideas and insights for the management of inter-agency coordination barriers.
The report presents an overview of factors causing fragmentation and overlapping of activities of federal agencies. The report also addresses the barriers of inter-agency coordination and summary of potential approaches, which can improve the effectiveness and efficiency of collaboration between different agencies. Therefore, this article presents an essential source for understanding factors causing fragmentation and overlapping activities, which lead to federal inefficiencies in the delivery of services. It also provides solution on how to solve and improve the effectiveness through improved inter-agency collaborations.
Emerson, Kirk. Inter-agency Cooperation on U.S.-Mexico Border Wilderness Issues - A Report on Interagency Cooperation. A Report on Interagency Cooperation. Tucson: Kirk Emerson & Associates, 2010.
This report provides a documentation of the inter-agency cooperations on the US- Mexico border, which facilitate the improvement of security and facilitate the protection of adjacent areas. The Mexican border is porous and agencies within the department of homeland security have been working together with various other agencies. For example, the department of land and the US department of agriculture have been working with the department of homeland security. The report provides factors that have facilitated inter-agency cooperation between the agencies in protecting the border and benefit of such collaborations. For example, inter-agency communications have been imperative, which have been achieved through improvements in radio interoperability, which consolidate communication towers and equipments. This has led to enhanced joint capacity between these agencies improving surveillance, job training, improved mapping and law enforcement. It has also provided assistance to border security from land management agencies through fencing. The collaboration has also assisted land management agencies through mitigations and restorations. The joint efforts have also improved protection of the public safety.
Therefore, this is an imperative report on the emphasizing the importance of inter-agency collaborations as it improves service delivery and improves the operations of federal government. The report can be adopted by other agencies operating in various other agencies coupled with conflicts. The models of the working relationships and basis of collaborations between these agencies can be used as a model that can be adopted by other agencies in improving collaborations. Therefore, it is an important article for studying the importance of inter-agency cooperations.
Ward, William “Kip”. "What “Right” Looks Like in the Interagency: A Commander’s Perspective." Inter-Agency Journal (2011).
This article addresses the issue of establishment of US Africa Command (USAFRICOM) an inter-agency command with an objective, mission and purpose. This establishment has attracted a lot of attention unlike other composition of previous commands due to the emphasis on an integrated diplomacy approach. For example, it involves the efforts of Department Of Defense, Department of State and Agency for International Development (USAID), which must complement and support each other. This article provides a brief explanation of how DoD established USAFRICOM through institutionalization of inter-agency perspectives into its mission and objectives.
Therefore, this article provides a framework, which can be used by agencies establishing inter-agency operations through integration of their missions and objectives. The article also recognizes strategic communications between different department as an important aspect in establishing inter-agency operations. The other aspects recognized as essential in establishing inter-agency operations is resourcing. This aspect focuses on distribution of resources between different agencies as imbalances in the distribution of resources forms the basis of conflicts between different agencies. Therefore, the article is essential as it provides the basis of establishing collaborations between different agencies, which is essential in this study.
OECD. Effective Inter-agency Cooperation in Fighting Tax Crimes and Other Financial Crimes. Annual Forum on Tax and Crime. Rome: OECD, 2012
OECD presents a forum where various governments convene to discuss various issues in regard to their economies, issues of corporate governance and respond to new developments. Financial crimes have been on the rise in the recent past in terms of the numbers and sophistication. This has been due to various criminals affecting the global financial systems such as money laundering, tax evasion, tax fraud, extortions, drug trafficking and investment fraud. The nature of these financial crimes presents a challenge as various laws are violated and a multi-agency approach must be adopted if the financial crimes are to be abated. Financial crimes involve different stages such as prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution, which facilitate recovery of crime proceeds.
Therefore, dealing with financial crimes requires a multi-agency approach, which includes tax administration, custom administration, police and law enforcement agencies, financial intelligence units, prosecution authorities and financial regulators. The multi-agency approach facilitates the development of models of information sharing and enhanced cooperation between different agencies. Therefore, this article provides dynamism on the need for inter-agency in the improving service and fighting different kinds of crimes. It is important to recognize that all government agencies are interlinked based on various issues affecting their operations. Therefore, it is important to ensure inter-agency cooperation to improve the effectiveness and outcomes of different agencies.
Miklaucic, Michael. "Learning the Hard Way: Lessons from Complex Operations." Inter-Agency Journal (2011): 17-28.
The new face of war involves complex operations where the military and civilian personnel work hand in hand. The multi-dimensional complexity of the challenges facing security agencies requires a coordinated approach in the use of national security resources. These include developmental, economic and diplomatic resources based on the rapidly changing operational environment for security agencies. Miklaucic focuses on the need for a multi-agency approach, which is inevitable when dealing with complex security operations.
He focuses on the need for inter-agency learning, where different security agencies learn together on issues requiring multi-agency operations. This includes the inclusion of civilian organizations involved in the complex security operations. This improves cooperation and enhances information interoperability between the involved agencies. Taking lessons together improves the effectiveness of the agencies during complex operations since there is a clear unity of command for the agencies involved. It also develops a systematic approach in the operations since the approach adopted by the multi-agency is informed. Therefore, this resource provides insights on the need for the employment of integrated learning between different agents, which improves their response and effectiveness during complex operations.
Miller, Thomas J. "Inter-Agency Cooperation: An Ambassador’s Perspective." Inter-Agency Journal (2011): 11-16.
Miller begins the article recognizing the importance of inter-agency operations currently since most of the events that have occurred requiring an inter-agency approach since the events could not be contained within the domains of a single agency. There has been an increased complexity in the globe creating the urgency for inter-agency cooperation in regard to the development and implementation of more effective strategies. Miller recognizes the importance of establishing a center for complex operations and a legislation, which will facilitate inter-agency professional development.
There is a need for the collaboration of different agencies operating under the government. Miller recognizes the need for the creation of a round table mentality when dealing with inter-agency issues, where the input of all agencies is put into consideration. He argues that there is a need for the creation of an inter-agency ambassador where inter-agency disputes are resolved at the lowest point. Additionally, there is a need for a chain of command in both directions, which will facilitate resolution of inter-agency disputes. Therefore, this article provides new insights that can be used in enhancing inter-agency cooperation from the perspective of the government and inter-agency ideas.
Cricks, James. "Moving Beyond Force-on-Force Planning." Inter-Agency Journal (2011): 29-37.
Cricks advocates for joint operational planning for different agencies involved in an operation. It is difficult for a single agency to deal with sophisticated issues that have been arising hence the need for inter-agency cooperation. The complexity of security operations has increased based on the participation of different parties such as humanitarian associations, resident civilians, warring groups NGOs and other intergovernmental organizations. This raises the need for inter-agency planning for effective operations.
There is an argument that considering a multi-sided problems as essential in improving cooperation and sharing of ideas between different agencies. The development of strategic communication has also been highlighted in the article as an important aspect in improving intergovernmental collaborations. Therefore, this is an important resource in understanding inter-agency collaborations and cooperation. This article focuses on the importance of inter-agency planning and learning to foster collaborations.
Serafino, Nina M, Catherine Dale and Pat Towell. Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Washington DC: Congress, 2012.
This report was made in response to the actions taken by the congress to improve inter-agency cooperation especially after 9/11. There were various initiatives adopted during the Bush administration to improve inter-agency cooperation. Additionally, there have been reforms under the Obama administration to promote inter-agency cooperation. The reforms include the need for improving strategy-making, planning and budgeting for inter-agency operations. The reforms also addressed the need for civilian institutional authorities and structures, which improve coordination and collaborations.
Therefore, this report presents an essential source in understanding inter-agency cooperation and collaborations from the perspectives of the government. Understanding the reforms and initiatives that have been taken by the government for the purpose of improving collaborations is essential. Therefore, this report presents an imperative resource in increasing the understanding of the issues affecting inter-agency cooperation from the perspective government initiatives and reforms.