Comparison Of Quantitative And Qualitative Review Article Review Examples

Published: 2021-06-21 23:40:16
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Introduction
In both qualitative and quantitative research, the close association between research and theory can basically be explained by the research components. The first impetus for the research is search for a theory. This means that development of theory depends on research, and also research depends on the theory. A number of researchers characterize this relationship as dialectic that is, a relationship where theory defines the data to be collected and the findings from research provide challenges to the accepted theories. It is thus correct to argue that research is the vehicle for development of theory. For that reason, this paper centers on comparison of the qualitative and quantitative research articles specified below to determine how research and theory are related as well as how they are used for nursing science.
Article 1
Zoffmann, V., & Kirkevoid, M. (2007). Relationships and their potential for change developed in difficult type 1 Diabetes. Qualitative Health Research, 17(5), 625-38.
Article 2
Nathan, D. M., Inman, B., Cleary, P. A., Backlund, J. Y., Genuth, S., Miller, R., et al. (2009). Modern-day clinical course of type 1 diabetes mellitus after 30 years duration: The diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications and Pittsburgh epidemiology of diabetes complications experience (1983-2005). Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(14), 1307-1316.
Research designs used in the articles
A research design generally encompasses the procedures and method used to conduct the scientific research. The design defines the type of the study that is, if it is correlational, descriptive, experimental, semi-experimental, meta-analytic, or review. In addition, a research design defines the hypothesis, research question, experimental design, dependent and independent variables, and, if applicable, statistical analysis plan as well as data collection methods (Munhall 2012). Therefore, research designs are classified into correlational, descriptive, semi-experimental, meta-analytic, grounded theory, review, experimental, among others.
The research design in article 1 (qualitative research) is grounded theory research design. The researchers have stated that they used this research design and it comprised symbolic interactionism perspective as well as constant comparative method (Zoffmann and Kirkevoid 2007). On the other hand, the research design in article 2 is an empirical descriptive research design since it has encompassed a case study. The researchers have clearly stated that their aim was to describe the contemporary clinical TIDM course (Nathan et al 2009). This quantitative research article (article 1) helps us to understand a complex issue that is, the present-day TIDM clinical course. The other thing that shows that the research design of this article is an empirical descriptive research that encompasses a case study is its detailed description of a specific case as mentioned above.
Theoretical Framework
Theoretical frameworks in research try to connect all the aspects of an inquiry. They act like maps, which give coherence to the empirical inquiry (INTELECOM. Therefore, these frameworks present a chosen approach to a though or outline the possible courses of action in any research. The theoretical frameworks in the two articles are descriptive categories.
Sample Selection and Size
The researchers in the qualitative research invited nurses and patients from a day clinic or an inpatient unit at a hospital in Danish University to participate. The inclusion criteria for the patients included being diagnosed with diabetes for one year and above, an age of at least 18 years, and being admitted because of the poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8.0%) (Zoffmann and Kirkevoid 2007). On the other hand, those nurses who were experienced in specialized diabetes unit and were familiar with the traditional diabetes care were included. The sample size was n=19 where nurses were 8 and patients were 11 (45 male and 7 female). Eight of these patients had type 1 diabetes and were aged 18-42 years. The remaining three had type 2 diabetes and were aged 49-63 years.
On the other hand, in the quantitative research article, study population was made up of DCCT TIDM cohort (N=1441). The sample of EDC cohort was n=161. This sample was selected so as to match the DCCT criteria entry. Of the 1441 subjects with the TIDM, 53 percent were male and 47 percent were female. The size of the sample of the conventional therapy patients was n=730. The samples from the two research articles were somehow representative since the ages of the participants were varied (Nathan et al 2009).
Methods for Data Analysis
In the qualitative research article, the first author concurrently analyzed the data with the support of the Qualitative media analyzer that is a computer program, which provides simultaneous access during coding to original auditory details of data. Inductive procedure of applying the constant comparative analysis was completed in four steps. Initially, the researchers performed first open coding on every interview or conversation soon after taking place. Second, they used critical comparison on most solid categories that at that time were supported by the transcriptions of coded data. This step ended when they achieved saturation and the ideas for the tentative links between the categories started to emerge (Zoffmann and Kirkevoid 2007). In the third step, the researchers did comparison across the sources of data to both explore and confirm the links between the concepts and therefore pattern out the theoretical connections and ideas. The researchers then compared these first theoretical constituents in the next step that sustained throughout writing process. At every step, the researchers returned to the former steps to test work, fit, modifiability, and relevance.
In the quantitative research, the researchers compared the clinical characteristics between the sexes by using the Wilcoxon rank sum tests for the quantitative variables as well as the chi-square tests for the categorical variables. They represented the diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia as number per a hundred patient years. They also used Weibull regression model for the interval censored data to estimate cumulative incidence of CVD, nephropathy, or retinopathy. They also used an empirical survival estimation for the interval censored data to verify the Weibull assumption (Nathan et al 2009).
Adhering to ethical standards
In the qualitative research, ethical standards were adhered to since nurses were only included in the study if they had knowledge about the traditional diabetes care and on top of this were experienced in specialized diabetes unit for a period of more than one year. Therefore, the research included individuals who were well trained and were experienced enough. Additionally, the researchers ensured that dyads were formed based on assignment of nurses to the patients in units taking into account the needs of the ordinary clinical practice. Moreover, informed consent was actually obtained from all the participants and they were also assured that the statements they would make would be handled confidentially and anonymously. What’s more, protocol was set in accordance with Helsinki declaration and accepted or approved by ethics Aarhus County’s committee. On the other hand, ethical standards in the quantitative research were also adhered to since informed consent was obtained from the participants.
Ensuring rigor
In the two research articles, the researchers have enhanced rigor by a number of strategies. For one, they have employed flexible and systematic sampling. The samples in the two researches are representative and flexible. In addition, they have ensured that the research participants have their freedom of speech. The issue of ethical standards in these articles is maintained hence this have ensured that research participants have their freedom to speak. Moreover, in the two research articles, there is accurate transcription as well as data-driven coding. Last but not least, there is an on-going attention to the research context in the two articles hence this have ensured rigor in both of them.
Generalizability of Findings
In terms of the generalizability of findings, the findings of the quantitative research article can be applied to the settings other than their original settings. However, the findings in qualitative research article cannot be generalized because the data in this case have been treated qualitatively and the aim of the researchers is to get a detailed information about a certain group only.
Moreover, generalizability of findings in quantitative research article is statistical that is, study sample is matched or can be matched to study population at large so as to ensure demographic characteristics comparability. The findings will be generalizable only if the research is correct. In contrast, in the qualitative research article, research participants are selected by theoretical sampling means. We note that in this research the representative that is sought is situational instead of demographic hence its generalizability of findings is extent to which the theory developed can be exported to provide the explanatory theory for experiences of people in comparable situations. .
Conclusion
References
Zoffmann, V., & Kirkevoid, M. (2007). Relationships and their potential for change developed in difficult type 1 Diabetes. Qualitative Health Research, 17(5), 625-38.
Munhall, P. L. (2012). Nursing research: A qualitative perspective. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
INTELECOM Intelligent Telecommunications (Firm). (2005). Qualitative versus quantitative research. Pasadena, Calif: INTELECOM
Nathan, D. M., Inman, B., Cleary, P. A., Backlund, J. Y., Genuth, S., Miller, R., et al. (2009). Modern-day clinical course of type 1 diabetes mellitus after 30 years duration: The diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications and Pittsburgh epidemiology of diabetes complications experience (1983-2005). Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(14), 1307-1316.

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