Brinkley Writing Assignment Book Review Samples

Published: 2021-06-21 23:40:57
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The book explores the history, role, and contribution of Rosa Parks, a human activist on modern social and economic transformation and changes. Rosa Parks, a renowned African American activist was born on February 1913. Many professionals and researchers refer Rosa as the first lady of civil rights due to her contribution in fighting for human right and equality in America. In an effort to recognise the role and contribution of Rosa Parks in America, the country commemorates her birth and the days she was arrested for her intensive effort of fighting for human rights in America. The day is especially common in some American states including Ohio and California.
Rosa popularity and contribution on social changes in America was especially apparent on December 1st 1955 in Montgomery Alabama when she intentionally refused o obey bus driver James Blake commands. In this case, Rosa Parks was directed by the driver to give her bus sit to a white passenger. During this historical period, United States of America was characterised by intensive racial and colour discrimination. All black Americans were compelled to respect and obey white Americans irrespective of their age and gender. This act frustrated a good number of Africa American human right activists including Rosa Parks (Barnes 21). Rosa opted to disobey the white driver order of giving her sit to a white America to demonstrate her frustration towards the ideas of racism. Although Rosa Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregations, the activities that took place after the refusal enlisted endless debates and discussion among America professionals and social thinkers. The act of violating the white driver’s orders of giving way her sit to a white passenger resulted to arresting and prosecution of Rosa for civil disobedience. Rosa was charged for violating the Alabama segregation law that dictated that all black American should grant maximum respect to white America irrespective of their age or gender.
However, instead of undermining Parks effort to fight for the right of the minority section of the section including African America, the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the act of defiance to drivers order turned out to be a significant symbol of the modern civil rights movements. Instead of becoming a criminal and an inmate, Parks turned out to be an international icon that spearheaded the resistance to racial segregation. His effort to resist racial segregation received endless support both at local level and in international levels. Instead of criticising Rosa Parks’s act of violating the existing local regulation, international civil rights experts and civil rights movements condemned Jim Crow system for undermining human rights in America. In consequence, Jim Crow system was compelled by international bodies to present detailed information providing the reasons why the systems should allow racial segregation in the current integrated generation.
Owing to the supports that she received from both at local and international level, Rosa Parks formulated and spearheaded a human rights activist groups that aimed at the reduction of racial and gender segregation in the country. In collaboration with other leaders and human rights activists such as Edgar Nixon, the pioneer and president of local chapter of the NAACP and Martin Luther king Junior, Rosa Parks pioneered the introduction of an international entity to fight for the rights of vulnerable people in the society. At this memorable time, Parks was the secretary of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP. Prior to becoming the secretary of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP, Rosa Parks has attended training on racial equality and the rights of workers in Highlander Folk School at Tennessee.
At her initial stages of fighting for the rights of the vulnerable section of the population especially the right of African America, Rosa Parks underwent severe challenges including serving jail terms for participating in civil disobedience in United States of America. In addition, Rosa Parks was also fired from her valuable job as the seamstress in a local department store. After encountering humiliating and inhumane firing in a local department store inciting workers, Rosa Parks attained a similar job in Detroit. Furthermore, in the years between 1965 and 1988, Rosa Parks also served as receptionists and secretary to John Conyers and Africa America United States representative. As stated by Brinkley in her book, the contribution of Rosa Parks in fighting for the right of innocents and vulnerable people in the society was largely contributed her severe suffering in her youthful age. As stated in the book, Rosa Parks underwent intensive suffering from the hands of white American an act that humiliated her and empowered her to fight for her basic rights. In her earlier employment, Rosa Parks also suffered from racial segregations including both physical and mental torture.
Furthermore, as stated in the book under study, it was clear that Rosa Parks’s engagement and interaction with other prominent human rights activists such as John Conyers and Edger Nixon spearheaded her commitment towards ensuring racial and gender equality in the society. In an interview, Rosa Parks explained that her main role model was Conyers, a United States of America Africa America representative. She noted that besides training her on the effective means of fighting for the rights of innocent people in the society, Conyers also trained her on how to develop into a reputable person.
Rosa Parks’s early live challenges also motivated her to take part in fighting for the rights of innocent people in the society. Rosa Parks was born in Rosa Louise McCauley to James McCauley, a carpenter and nee Edwards, a teacher. At her early development stage, Rosa Parks suffered from abject poverty that was accompanied by severe health complications including chronic tonsillitis. It is also during her early childhood development that Rosa Parks witnessed the separation of her parents. After the separation of her parents, Rosa moved with her mother to Pine Level City, kilometres away from Montgomery capital. In the new location, Rosa grew up as subsistence farmer together with her mother and grandmother. It is at this new place that Rosa Parks came in to direct contact with the suffering and frustrations in life. All her problems and frustrations at this time were generated by the existing racial discrimination in the society. Africa Americans who were poor farmers dominated the Pine Level City. Lack of the required inputs in their farming and free labour in the region compelled poor Africa to live in abject poverty and suffering.
Although African Americans dominated the Pine Level, some whites in the regions owned the means of production in the region. This white rich people in the country engaged in slavery trades where they hired Africans for free labour. In all social settings, white people were given first priority and social privileges. The nature of social and racial discrimination in the society motivated Rosa Parks’s effort to fight for the rights of African in the entire United States of America. In some instances, Parks mother was forced to work free in white American lands.
Racial segregation was also apparent in religion settings. Africans were discriminated from attaining powerful leadership positions in church. Africa were only allowed to assumed less serious leadership position in church forcing them to form African Methodist Episcopal church. While attending primary schools and high school training, Rosa Parks also recounts the manner in which there was racial discrimination in learning institutions. As observed by Rosa Parks black Americans were denied opportunities to attend some precious school in the country. Instead, black Americans were compelled attend lower class schools that had less and undeveloped infrastructures and other social amenities. To some extent, attending schools of low level undermined Rosa Parks efforts of becoming one of the most prominent academia in United States of America. Therefore, as she observed in the book under study, it is clear that Rosa Parks’s effort to fight for the right of vulnerable section of the populations was boosted by her suffering during her early developmental stages. After encountering intensive suffering from the white of white America Rosa Parks was heard swearing to commit herself in the fight against human discrimination.
Although Brinkley book has pointed out severe positive traits of white America including the their kindness an honesty, the writing has to a large extent explored the intensity of racism in the country (Brinkley 27). As the writer of the book under study explains, the traditional human right movement such as Ku Klux Klan also motivate Rosa to engage in human right activities. During the Ku Klux Klan movement, the Rosa was responsible for guarding the gate that housed a huge number of white America. Parks decided to take active role as a civil rights movement in December 1943 by joining Montgomery chapter of the NAACP. At this time, Rosa was elected as the secretary of the organisation. She also held the undertaking of representing the interests of women in the organisation. In her role as women representative and secretary to the organisation, Parks demonstrated her competence and commitments towards fighting for the right of African America in the country. Together with other activist in the country, Parks formed and spearheaded the committee for equal justice that addressed the interests of all players in the country. In an effort of sensitising herself with the nature and magnitude of racial discrimination in America and in other parts of the world, Park together with her husband attended several seminars and meetings including communist party in 1945.
It is apparent that Parks is a key player in the fight against racial discrimination in America and in other parts of the world. Her desire to fight for the rights of black Americans in the country was largely prompted by her experiences in the hand of white Americans. The support from other scholars and human rights activists enhanced her success in the fight against human rights discrimination. In this context, it becomes indisputable that the efforts of Rosa Parks resulted to the downfall of Jim Crow system.
Work cited
Barnes, Catherine A. Journey from Jim Crow: The Desegregation of Southern Transit, Columbia: Columbia University Press, 1983. Print
Brinkley, Douglas. Rosa Parks: A Life, New York, NY: Penguin Books, 2005. Print

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