A literature review is an important item that evaluates various studies found in the literature associated with the area of interest. It is the key part of every research project. Literature review is needed because it seeks to summarize available literature. It makes sense of a body of research and demonstrates an analysis of different literatures about the topic of discussion. Although, literature review is an important and needed part, it is not much present thoroughly in this research paper. The authors have made use of a limited number of literatures in the introduction section. The article in general has not applied a good deal of research findings and evidence even though present literature in this topic is boundless.
The study designs used are descriptive and comparative ones. The research design seems to be apt in addressing the aim of the article. It is the qualitative study approach. This is of particular importance in this research where whole aim needs exploration and comprehension of a vast topic. It is equivalent to the perception and research methods. The study does try to pull together various bits and piece to form a pattern. . This study does not possess any such research question but research aim has been well described and study design is pertinent to it.
Young African American men of age 16 to 25 with diagnosed HIV were the participants of the study as a case while young African American without HIV were used as control. The number of participants has not been mentioned exactly but it seems that there were 25 cases and 85 controls. So we cannot commit precisely whether they are appropriate for the design and research of the study. Cases and control should be of same number. The participants were reported to have an anal sex and their demographic profile was also noted. They were allowed to participate only when they fulfilled the criteria.
The ethical problems in research link to the protection of human participants to make certain the nonexistence or diminution of the likelihood of damage, nervousness, discomfort or injury (Coup & Schneider, 2007). The researchers of this study has not mentioned about the ethical approval or consent before conducting their study. This is very important here as humans were included in this study. They should have a right to know about the research and give consent whether they want to participate in it or not.
Even if bias had been, this would be related to exposure, participants’ bias or self-selection bias. The bias would be a distortion which ends in the information not being accurately representative of the state the researchers are trying to investigate (Rothman, 2002).
In order to reduce the effect of confounding factors before the analysis of data, the data was collected precisely. Thorough research was done to ensure accurate data collection about the participants.
The controls that might possibly produce bias were excluded from the study. By doing so, the study claimed to control the bias. This method is appropriate and can reduce the bias to a great extent. No such measure of association was reported in this study. Multivariable analysis was used as a statistical measure.
The major results of the study were that a large number of participants were found to be infected with HIV. These were those individuals who were engaged in unprotected sex with their male partner. Analysis of data is carried out to decrease, record, systematize and provide meaning to data. This is done here very precisely and gradually. Moreover, the process of data analyzing is described effectively ~different groups were developed by the authors that were logically consistent to the data. Furthermore, the research paper does not simply sum up its findings but has provided thorough details following statistical analysis.
The discussion has addressed the limitations of the study. This study can lead to various important implications. It holds potential to bring about many new studies aimed at finding the causal factors behind HIV infection. Authors have however not described about all the possible limitations present in their study.
Discussion is mainly based on the findings of the study. The whole paper is written flawlessly with clear thought and perception. All the ideas and thoughts of the authors are easily understandable. The writing of the paper is comprehensible, concise, and well presented and organized
The main conclusion is to make efforts in order to prevent the HIV infection. According to their study findings, the risk of infection was high in individuals who did unprotected sex. The conclusion goes well with the aim and results of the study. Data does satisfy the conclusions.
The main implication is regarding prevention of HIV. According to them sexual communication and negotiation can contribute a main role in prevention. These are quite logical. No, I cannot see other implications from this research that the author did not discuss.
The results of the study can be generalized based on as larger population as can be. There is not a limit in it. The results of this study can be generalized with this population used in this particular paper.
The general public will get awareness regarding the way of spread of HIV and will therefore try to keep themselves away from the responsible factors or causes.
Rothman KJ. (2002). Biases in study design. In: Epidemiology: an introduction. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 94–112.
Coup, A. & Schneider, Z. (2007). Ethical And Legal Issues In Research. In Nursing & Midwifery Research: Methods And Appraisal For Evidence-Based Practice. (3rd ed.). Mosby Elsevier: Sydney, pp.80-101.